Understanding Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Benign prostatic hyperplasia—also called BPH—is a condition in BPH 7 millimetri in which the prostate gland is enlarged and not cancerous. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is also called benign prostatic hypertrophy or benign prostatic obstruction. The prostate goes through two main growth periods as a man ages. The first occurs early in puberty, when the prostate doubles in size. Benign prostatic hyperplasia often occurs with the second growth phase.
As the prostate enlarges, the gland presses against and pinches the urethra. The bladder wall becomes thicker. Eventually, the bladder may weaken and lose the ability to empty completely, leaving some urine in the bladder. The narrowing of BPH 7 millimetri urethra BPH 7 millimetri urinary retention—the inability to empty the bladder completely—cause many of the problems associated BPH 7 millimetri benign prostatic hyperplasia.
The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland BPH 7 millimetri is part of the male reproductive system. The main function of the prostate is to make a fluid that goes into semen. The gland surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder. The bladder neck is the area where the urethra joins the bladder. The bladder and urethra are parts of the lower urinary tract. The prostate has BPH 7 millimetri or more lobes, or sections, enclosed by an outer layer of tissue, and it is in front of the rectum, just below the bladder.
The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In men, the urethra also carries semen out through the penis. The cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not well understood; however, it occurs mainly in older men. Benign prostatic hyperplasia does not develop in men whose testicles were removed before puberty.
For this reason, some researchers believe factors related to aging and the testicles may cause benign prostatic hyperplasia. Throughout their lives, men produce testosterone, a male hormone, and small amounts of estrogen, a female hormone. As men age, the amount of active testosterone in their blood decreases, which BPH 7 millimetri a higher proportion of estrogen. Scientific studies have suggested that benign prostatic hyperplasia may occur because the higher proportion of estrogen within the prostate increases the activity of substances that promote prostate cell growth.
Another theory focuses on dihydrotestosterone DHTa male hormone that plays a role in prostate development and growth. Some research has indicated BPH 7 millimetri even with a drop in blood testosterone levels, older men continue to produce and accumulate high levels of DHT in the prostate.
This accumulation of DHT may encourage prostate cells to continue to grow. Scientists have noted that men BPH 7 millimetri do not produce DHT BPH 7 millimetri not develop benign prostatic hyperplasia. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common prostate problem for men older than age Inas many as 14 million men in the United States had lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Benign prostatic hyperplasia affects about 50 percent of men between the ages of 51 and 60 and up to 90 percent of men older than The size BPH 7 millimetri the prostate does not always determine the severity of the BPH 7 millimetri or symptoms.
Some men with greatly enlarged prostates have little blockage and few symptoms, while other men who have minimally enlarged prostates have greater blockage and more symptoms. Less than half of all men with benign prostatic hyperplasia have lower BPH 7 millimetri tract symptoms. Sometimes men may not know they have a blockage until they cannot urinate. This condition, called acute urinary retention, can result from taking over-the-counter cold or allergy medications that contain decongestants, such as pseudoephedrine and oxymetazoline.
A potential side effect of these medications may prevent the bladder neck from relaxing and releasing urine. Medications that contain antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, can weaken the contraction of bladder muscles and cause urinary retention, difficulty urinating, and painful urination. When men have partial urethra blockage, urinary retention also can occur as a BPH 7 millimetri of alcohol consumption, cold temperatures, or a long period of inactivity.
Most men with benign prostatic hyperplasia do not develop these complications. However, kidney damage in particular can be a serious health threat when it occurs. Taking a personal and family medical history is one of BPH 7 millimetri first things a health care provider may do to help diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia.
A health care provider may ask a man. A physical exam may help diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia. During a physical exam, a health care provider most often. A digital rectal exam, or rectal BPH 7 millimetri, is a physical exam of the prostate. To perform the exam, the health care provider asks the man to bend over a table or lie on his side while holding his knees close to his chest.
The health care provider slides a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the part BPH 7 millimetri the prostate that lies next to the rectum. The man may feel BPH 7 millimetri, brief discomfort during the rectal exam. A health care provider most often performs a rectal exam during an office visit, and men do not require anesthesia.
The exam helps the health care provider see BPH 7 millimetri the prostate is enlarged or tender or has any abnormalities that require more testing. Many health care providers perform a rectal exam as part of a routine physical exam for men age 40 or older, whether or not they have urinary problems. A health care provider may refer men to a urologist—a doctor who specializes in urinary problems and the male reproductive system—though the health care provider most often diagnoses benign prostatic hyperplasia on the basis of symptoms and a digital rectal BPH 7 millimetri.
A urologist uses medical tests to help diagnose lower urinary tract problems related to benign prostatic hyperplasia and recommend treatment. Medical tests may include. Urinalysis involves testing a urine sample. A health care provider tests the sample during an office visit or sends it to a lab for analysis.
For the test, a nurse or technician places a strip of chemically treated paper, called a dipstick, into the urine. Patches on the dipstick change color to indicate signs of infection in urine. PSA blood test. A health care provider may draw blood for a PSA test during an office visit or in a commercial facility and send the sample to a lab for analysis.
Prostate cells create a protein called PSA. Men who have prostate cancer may have a higher amount of PSA in their blood. However, a high PSA level does not necessarily indicate prostate BPH 7 millimetri. In fact, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate infections, inflammation, aging, and normal fluctuations often cause high PSA levels. Urodynamic tests.
Urodynamic tests include a variety of procedures that BPH 7 millimetri at how well the bladder and urethra store and release urine.
A health care provider performs urodynamic tests during an office visit or in an outpatient center or a hospital. Some urodynamic tests do not require anesthesia; others may require local anesthesia. Cystoscopy is a procedure that uses a tubelike instrument, called a cystoscope, to look inside the urethra and bladder.
A urologist inserts the cystoscope through the opening at the tip of the penis and into the lower urinary tract. A urologist performs cystoscopy during an office visit or in an outpatient center or a hospital. The urologist will give the patient local anesthesia; however, BPH 7 millimetri some cases, the patient may require sedation and regional or general anesthesia. A urologist may use cystoscopy to look for blockage or stones in the urinary tract.
Transrectal ultrasound. Transrectal ultrasound uses a device, called a transducer, that BPH 7 millimetri safe, painless sound BPH 7 millimetri off organs to create an image of their structure. The health care provider can move BPH 7 millimetri transducer to different angles to make it possible to examine different organs. Urologists most often use transrectal ultrasound to examine the prostate. The ultrasound image shows the size of the prostate and any abnormalities, such as tumors.
Transrectal ultrasound cannot reliably diagnose prostate cancer. Biopsy is a procedure that involves taking a small piece of prostate tissue for examination with a microscope.
A urologist performs the biopsy in an outpatient center BPH 7 millimetri a hospital. The urologist will give the patient light sedation and local anesthetic; however, in some cases, the patient will require general anesthesia.
The urologist uses imaging techniques such as ultrasound, a computerized tomography scan, or magnetic resonance imaging to guide the biopsy needle into the prostate. A pathologist—a doctor who specializes in examining BPH 7 millimetri to diagnose diseases—examines the prostate tissue in a lab. The test can show whether prostate cancer is present. Men may not need treatment for a mildly enlarged prostate unless their symptoms are bothersome and affecting their quality of life. In these cases, instead of treatment, a urologist may recommend regular checkups.
If benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms become bothersome or present a health risk, a urologist most often recommends treatment. A health care provider may recommend lifestyle changes for men BPH 7 millimetri symptoms are mild or slightly bothersome.
Lifestyle changes can include. BPH 7 millimetri health care provider or urologist may prescribe medications that stop the growth of or shrink the prostate BPH 7 millimetri reduce symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia:.
Alpha blockers. These medications relax the smooth muscles of the prostate and bladder neck to improve urine flow and reduce bladder blockage:. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Urologists prescribe these medications mainly for erectile dysfunction. Tadalafil Cialis belongs to this class of medications and can reduce lower urinary tract symptoms by relaxing smooth muscles in the lower urinary tract.
Researchers are working to determine the role of erectile dysfunction drugs in the long-term treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. These medications block the production of DHT, which accumulates in the prostate and may cause prostate growth:. These medications can prevent progression of prostate growth or actually shrink the prostate in some men.